cloud network hunting note: earlier this week, hunting cloud network loyal readers is strongly recommended to us by a paper entitled “Thinkers and Tinkerers” reading notes. In this paper the author walter isaacson’s “innovators” and Peter Altair “from scratch” two books “companion piece” work of science and technology, gives a general summary. Cloud network editor you hunting for your sole compile as follows, hope the two innovative revelation “food”, you can feed hungry but have indigestion “mind”.
in the long river of human history, the progress and development of science and technology opens the amazing new chapter. Although before also has new invention and creation, but it was not until the industrial revolution of science and technology is the continuous breakthrough and progress, also began to steadily improve people’s standard of living. In the past two centuries, the progress of science and technology in industry and agriculture is an obvious two areas, but in the past 60 years, the innovation of science and technology mainly from we are now generally referred to as the “information technology” a single domain. The innovation about the United States today, the first thing we think of is the silicon valley. Say simply, walter isaacson’s “Innovators” (The Innovators) is mainly elaborated The innovation to us is how to produce, but also from The perspective of his explains what prompted The innovation.
these innovators are not from silicon valley start-ups, even not from the United States, nor from the 20th century. Isaacson choose from two British mathematician Ada Lovelace have a dream and the story of Charles Babbage, thirties of the 19th century, the two of them miraculous made a similar modern basic principle of general computer. Start from here, Mr. Isaacson traces the more than one hundred years before world war ii in a series of conceptual development and technology breakthrough, until the first computer prototype build complete. Isaacson’s book, as the title suggests, is a series of biographies of the characters, because in the book, he describes a another person is how to put the computer from the theoretical concept into reality. This approach also has its limitations: the reader in understanding the person in a single information too much, but the lack of a full range of information about the character. In order to avoid this book give a person the sense with character sketches, isaacson always arrange person in the right place at the right time. He can on the basis of the balance structure and content of these characters, drawing at the same time, can highlight the and of the impact of these characters have affected by these characters of social trends. So it was a real and vivid description of the group of images to create the great picture of history, although these create in their respective s also did not complete.
from the overall framework, isaacson’s narrative can be divided into three periods. Early achievements in 1946, the most outstanding, the advent of electronic digital integral computer isaacson believes this is the first computer in the true sense, because it is a fully electronic, programmable, theoretically can complete all the tasks, rather than the designed for a single task. This period science and technology research and development are mostly rely on the requirements of the us military (electronic digital integral computer originally is developed for calculating trajectory missile), and most of the research work is conducted in university laboratories and military institutions.
in the next 20 years, some private companies played a vital role in the development of the computer, the first is the development of the transistor’s bell LABS, and then is the American silicon valley. In this process, the federal government also plays an important role, offers a wide range of research funds. The 50 s to 80 s of the 20th century, the department of defense and the national science foundation as well as private companies, invested a lot of money on the basic research. From the invention of the microchip and application can be seen, the early research achievements of science and technology of major clients is the U.S. military. During this period, therefore, to promote the real motive force of the development of science and technology is precisely what isaacson said “military, industrial and academic complex”, this kind of complex power also directly promote the emergence of the Internet in the 1970 s.
the emergence of the Internet and personal computers, let more and more people believe that the computer should be like what isaacson concludes, “is private and interaction”, therefore, how to make computers more individuation, make the computer from the operating into a simple operation of the complex machinery of the high price of affordable household devices, also give the user more autonomy, nearly 30 years to the computer industry has become a research theme. In the process played an important role in companies and enterprises, nearly 20 years at the same time we also witnessed the amazing software production and the new way of information, such as open source software and wikipedia.
this new way is very meaningful, like isaacson explained, progress and development of the digital revolution will comes in a variety of forms. The earliest we can see the development achievements is the invention of the people and then they write the software, such as electronic digital computer, semiconductor, microprocessors, personal computers, the Internet and the graphical user interface, operating system, word processing software, etc. In the financial field, the digital revolution has brought the increase of the risk investment. In some institutions, the digital revolution led to their progress and development, such as the company’s bell LABS and xerox PARC, they are all invested a lot of money on basic research and product development, become a strong momentum of the reform of promoting science and technology. In the field of management, is the digital revolution by Robert Mr Noyce and Gordon Moore and Andrew Grove in Intel company pioneering the hierarchical management system. Finally, isaacson called the most revolutionary achievements in recent years, the Internet bring teamwork and normal communication between strangers.
have in-depth study on the development of science and technology of the people will find that the content of the book is very familiar with, but always in isaacson book can use his unique way to illustrate the details, will be one by one these innovators work in front of the reader, such as Douglas Engelbart as early as the 1960 s have invented almost had all the characteristics of the modern computer computer, work in defense of j. c. r. Licklider how guidance and regulation of the birth of the Internet, and those who have a significant impact on modern life but we can never know. In essence, isaacson is telling a story, but he is also trying to use this historical story to investigate how reform and innovation.
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this may be more subtle than you might think, your first reaction may simply look at where successful innovators do good, where failure of innovators do is not good. The problem is that the reason of the success or failure is not so obvious, and available for study the success of the case is not so much. As isaacson wrote, sometimes the difference between genius and a fool is that whether the idea eventually proved to be correct. This should let the thought can be obvious characteristics to distinguish between genius and a fool people cautious.
in the same way, some of the common topic will emerge from the history of the digital revolution, one of the most important is probably don’t rely solely on Yu Tiancai at the beginning. It may sound strange, because most of the invention is based on the story of the great inventors as the main line. But isaacson points out, is the real motive force of innovation cooperation. A creative dreamer combined with a practical engineer will be very efficient at work, such as the invention of the electronic digital integral computer John Mauchly and j. Presper confrontation, such as apple’s Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak. And it is not just limited to the combination of two people, a lot of organizations and institutions have made outstanding contributions in the process of reform also mostly depends on the different scholars in the field of the strength of the team. These teams will not suppress individual point of view, but it will be very welcome. As isaacson said that strong individualism and the desire of the consensus can be compatible, can even be complementary, especially when the team at the time of cooperation to explore new things.
diverse members of the team are more likely to succeed one reason is that they are better at turning ideas into tangible products. This is isaacson an important topic discussed in the book: the real innovation is not just the remarkable insights and ideas, but will these insights and ideas into action, into a truly useful to people and are willing to accept and buy products. Very interesting in the “innovators” a chapter is about John Atanasoff isaacson told, in the early 1940 s, John Atanasoff obsessed with independent structure of a general-purpose computer, he took part in the construction of many of the important steps needed to complete the ENIAC, completed a general computer prototype build at the same time, but because he was alone in Iowa for research work, rather than with other scientists and engineers in the laboratory work together, so his computer has never really forming, and he can only be a footnote in the history of science and technology, a shade under Mauchly and confrontation with contrast. Isaacson value Atanasoff contribution, but at the same time he also notes that “we should not beautify so lonely”, the real innovation is not just an invention. Confrontation is also pointed out that the real innovation need to make the whole system running, which is difficult to by someone independent to complete.
in the same way, isaacson’s book also praised the strong support of public funding for basic research, is also for this reason, the contents of the so-called “knowledge sharing” can be constantly updated and added. Although today’s technology industry are around the patent and intellectual property rights to operate and profit, but in the past 60 years, people are free to use other people’s opinions to develop their own new achievements.
of course, all of these conditions are not necessarily brings a surge of innovation. Sometimes feel isaacson simplifies the process, he will drive for innovation factors summed up in three aspects: government funded research work, the pursuit of profit of the enterprise and the ability to work sufficient labor, isaacson believes the is a necessary factor and the classical model of innovation. But we can’t confirm the claim, we can confirm these factors did drive an innovation, but not other factors and the method also can be, so we don’t know.
although isaacson describes these innovators each are not identical, but they all have a common belief, it is believed that the future is so may, and computers and the Internet can really change people’s way of life. PayPal co-founder, the contemporary well-known silicon valley venture capitalists and leading Peter Thiel thinks, modern entrepreneurs is lack of such a belief. In view of the news every day are filled with all kinds of new ventures successfully get a lot of risk investment, the idea that Thiel may let a person feel very strange. In his new book, “from scratch” (by its courses taught at Stanford “start-up” roundup), Thiel said in today’s era, many start-ups a cautious attitude about the future development. These companies will think only of the existing product constantly upgrading, improve and beautify, never try to develop new products, as they are now keen to research and making different kinds of social software, but throw more complex and important problem in the side. Thiel believes that today’s society need is supposed to be similar to ferry and tesla motors founder Elon Musk such talent. Now the start-ups are mostly in repeating the work of others, just hope to be able to do better.
Thiel believes that such business model is a very unwise, natural enemies in the development of enterprises is the competition, if a start-up companies are in the other people have been doing the work, so it is inevitable to compete with others. Really should pursue is the founder of monopoly, is the best way to achieve monopoly makes no to other people’s products, such as Musk created the appearance of fashion, both price and reasonable electric sports car. This view is novel and interesting Thiel (we should not oppose monopoly? , he wants to express: is the focus of the enterprises should avoid the commercialization of the products, to avoid our own identical and similar with the competitors’ products. Although enterprises in market competition is also profitable, but there is no doubt that difficulty is very big, but little profit. Monopoly market, by contrast, is very profitable. In Thiel point of view, this is a good thing, because the enterprise and the company for a monopoly market, won the huge profits, have to develop different new products.
of course, research and development of new products is not so simple. nullnullnullnullnullnullnullnullnullnullnullnullnullnullnullnullnullnullnullnullnullnull